2. To that end, both Parties shall encourage their cooperation in the field of common defence and, where appropriate, inform each other of the measures they may take to achieve those objectives and shall consult jointly with other Parties which they may decide jointly or separately for the same purpose. As high-level States reveal valuable information about their reliability and the type of agreements they are willing to sign, cooperation with these partners, ceteris paribus, poses fewer problems of coordination and cooperation. This information mechanism creates an observable privileged binding effect. Third, I do placebo-type tests, and I like the UAE model on two samples: dyads that have signed at least one DCA and dyads that have not signed a DCA. Footnote 116 Not only does this specification test H3, but also consider the possibility that temporal influences excluded despite controls may be correlated with network influences. Let us take the example of a state that, over time, improves in military quality. Inspired by the logic of common benefits, this improvement should make this state a more attractive DCA partner. If military quality is correlated with degree centrality or links to third parties, but is omitted from the model, parameter estimates may be biased. However, any time-varying influence on common benefits should be as influential on subsequent agreements as on a first agreement, as there is no plausible reason for countries interested in powerful, prosperous, similar or otherwise strategically valuable partners to suddenly lose interest as soon as a first agreement is signed. Therefore, if the network influences on such excluded time variables are false, we would observe, contrary to expectations, that their effects do not differ between the placebo group and the treatment group. On the other hand, if the network influences are derived, as is suspected, from information mechanisms, they should be significantly different in terms of size between the two groups.
In combination with FEs, this specification is therefore a powerful tool to improve causal infetence. Since CADs are not directly, all variables must enter these equations symmetrically. I operationally implement the terms α ij and γ ij by calculating a two-way variable or a variable with a mutual degree. The two paths are the log-converted account into an annual dyaden of the number of thirds with which i and j have jointly signed DCAs in the last five years. Mutual Degree is the average log-transformed into annual dyaden of all CACs signed by i and j over the last five years. The annex examines a number of alternative specifications and also shows that the variation in the five-year window does not have a significant impact on the results. The Embassy of the United States of America congratulates the Spanish Ministry of Foreign Affairs and has the honour to confirm its agreement with the Kingdom of Spain for the establishment of a bilateral working group composed of representatives of the United States Ministry of Defense and the Spanish Ministry of Defence to discuss Annex 8 and the relevant articles of the Agreement on Defence Cooperation of 1 December 1994 Touch. 1988 between the two countries in labour. . . .